1. Reverse proxy means that the proxy server retrieves resources from one or more servers on behalf of the client and returns the resources to the client.
Unlike a forward proxy, which is an intermediary between its associated client and any server, a reverse proxy is an intermediary between any client and its associated server. In other words, the proxy runs on behalf of the client and the reverse proxy runs on behalf of the server.
2. A reverse proxy is a proxy configured to process requests from a group of remote or arbitrary clients to a group of known resources under the control of a local administrator.
An example of this is the Load balancer (aka Application Delivery Controller), which provides application high availability and optimization for workloads such as Microsoft Lync, Exchange, and SharePoint. The purpose of a reverse proxy is to administer the server system.
A reverse proxy sits between a client and a network service, such as a Web site. The three most important features that reverse proxies provide are security, load balancing, and ease of maintenance.
Reverse proxies can also play a role in identity branding and optimization. If too much Internet traffic slows the system down, you can use load balancing to distribute the traffic to one or more servers to improve overall performance.
Load balancing lets you replace a single overworked back-end service with a more resilient cluster. This technique also ensures that your application does not have a single point of failure. If one server fails, its siblings can take over. It's just good common sense.
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